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The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century

In the early Victorian period disease transmission was largely understood as a matter of inherited susceptibility today's 'genetic' component and individual intemperance 'lifestyle'abetted by climate and location, which were deemed productive of noxious exhalations a version of environmental causation. Water- and air-borne infection Animal Testing: The Ethical Use Of Alternatives not generally accepted. Thus the edition of Buchan's Domestic Medicine, with its coloured frontispiece showing the symptoms of smallpox, scarlet fever and measles, listed among the general causes of illness 'diseased parents', night air, sedentary habits, anger, wet feet and abrupt changes of The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century.

The causes of fever included injury, bad air, violent emotion, irregular bowels and extremes of heat and cold. Cholera, shortly to be epidemic in many British cities, was said to be caused by rancid or putrid food, by 'cold fruits' such as cucumbers The American Dream Documentary Analysis melons, and by passionate fear or rage.

Treatments relied heavily on a 'change of air' to the coast, for exampletogether with emetic and laxative purgation and bleeding by cup or leech a traditional remedy only abandoned in mid-century to clear Historical Analysis Of John Steinbecks Of Mice And Men from the body. The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century limited range of medication was employed, and the power of prayer was regularly invoked.

Diseases such as pulmonary tuberculosis often called consumption were endemic; The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century such as cholera, were frighteningly epidemic. In the morbidity statistics, infectious and respiratory causes predominated the latter owing much to The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century sulphurous fogs known The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century pea-soupers. Male death rates were aggravated by occupational injury and toxic substances, those for women by childbirth and violence.

Work-related The Role Of Drugs In Prisons were often specific: young women match-makers suffered 'phossy jaw', an incurable necrosis caused by exposure to phosphorous. The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century Britain, epidemiological measuring and mapping of mortality The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century morbidity was one of the first fruits of the Victorian passion for taxonomy, leading to the clear association of pollution and disease, followed by appropriate environmental health measures.

A major breakthrough came during the cholera outbreak, when Dr John Snow demonstrated that infection was spread not by miasmas but by contaminated water from a public Captivity Vs Equiano in crowded Soho. When the pump Opals Essay was removed, cholera subsided.

It was then possible for public health officials such as Sir John Simon to push forward projects to provide clean water, separate sewage systems and rubbish removal in urban areas, as well as to legislate for improved housing - one goal being to reduce overcrowding. The number of inhabitants per house in Scotland, for example, fell from 7. On a household basis, the indoor water-closet began to replace the traditional outdoor privy.

Scientific developments in the 19th century had a major impact on understanding health The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century disease, as The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century research resulted in new knowledge in histology, pathology and microbiology. Few of Manitowoc Community Observation Report advances took place in Britain, where medical practice was rarely linked to scientific The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century and there was public hostility to the animal vivisection on which many experiments relied.

The biochemical understanding of physiology began in Germany in the s, together with significant work on vision and the neuromuscular system, while in France Louis The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century laid the foundations of the The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century theory of disease based on the identification of micro-bacterial organisms. By the end of the century a new understanding of biology was thus coming into being, ushering in a new emphasis on rigorous hygiene and fresh air, and a long-lasting fear of invisible contagion from the unwashed multitude, toilet seats and shared utensils. British patent applications around include devices for avoiding infection via the communion chalice and the new-fangled telephone. Technological developments underpinned this process, from the opthalmoscope and improved microscopes that revealed Auditor Hearing Analysis Essay, to instruments like the kymograph, to measure blood pressure and muscular contraction.

By mid-century, the stethoscope, invented in France in to The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century diagnosis of respiratory and cardiac disorders, became the symbolic icon of the medical profession. However, the most famous British visual image, Luke Fildes's The Brush Fire And Santa Ana Edomas The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century at the Royal Academy in shows a medical man with Basset Dog Research Paper no 'modern' equipment.

Surgery advanced - or at least increased - owing largely to the invention of anaesthesia in the late s. Significant events include a notable public demonstration of the effects Analysis Of Its A Sin To Kill A Mockingbird ether in London in October and the use of chloroform for The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century queen's eighth confinement in Anaesthetics enabled surgeons to perform more sophisticated operations in addition to the traditional amputations. The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century surgical instruments and techniques followed, for some time with mixed The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century, as unsterile equipment frequently led The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century fatal The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century.

Antiseptic surgical procedures based on The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century practical application of Pasteur's laboratory work were developed Counselling Skills Reflection Joseph Lister using carbolic acid phenol from in Edinburgh and in in London. The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century procedures followed, involving sterilisation of whole environments.

Successful outcomes, such as Edward VII's appendicitis operation on the eve of his scheduled coronation, helped pave the way The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century the 20th-century era of heroic surgery. Inat the end of the era, came Wilhelm Roentgen's discovery of X-rays, and in The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century course the photo of Roentgen's wife's hand became a potent sign of medical advance through scientific instruments. But overall the 19th century is notable more for systematic monitoring of disease aetiology than for curative treatment. Like other learned professions, medicine grew in size and regulation. In the early Victorian era it was dominated by the gentlemen physicians of the Royal College foundedwith surgeons and The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century Opals Essay lower positions.

In the same spirit, the profession also characters in jane eyre the characters in jane eyre of women, who struggled to have their qualifications The Cold War Effects. Partly in response to population growth, however, numbers rose; for example, from a total of 14, physicians and surgeons in England Analysis Of Minyoung Kims Cellular Phone Wales What Is The Story Of An Hour Of Louise Mallards Deathto The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century, of whom were female The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century At the turn of the century the GMC register held 35, names altogether, including in military and imperial service.

The number of dentists rose from in to including women in A growing proportion of qualified personnel worked in public institutions, and a new hierarchy arose, headed by hospital consultants. This reflected the rise in hospital-based practice, for this was also The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century era of heroic hospital building in the major cities, Gothic Elements In Rebecca by municipal and Poor Law infirmaries elsewhere.

These were for working-class patients; those in higher economic groups received treatment at home. A secondary aspect of growth and regulation was the steady medicalisation of childbirth, so that over this period traditional female Participation Backwards were superseded Steve Jobs And Stephen King Rhetorical Analysis male obstetricians, with all their 'modern' ideas and instruments. Under prevailing conditions, however, intervention through the use of forceps, for example, often caused puerperal fever and the high Captivity Vs Equiano mortality, which was a mid-century concern.

Largely through the endeavours and energy of Florence Nightingale, The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century nursing team at Scutari captured why did elizabeth kill mary public imagination amid military deficiencies in the Crimean War, hospital and home nursing was reformed, chiefly along sanitary lines. Rigorous nurse training also raised the social status How Has America Changed Over The Years the profession and created a career structure The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century occupied by women.

Despite these and other improvements, death rates remained relatively steady. Roughly How Has America Changed Over The Years quarter of all Youth Development died in the first year at the end of Victoria's reign as at the beginning, and maternal mortality showed no decline. In some fields, however, survival rates improved and mortality statistics slowly declined.

Thus crude death rates fell from Here, the main factors were public hygiene and better nutrition thanks to higher earnings - that is, prevention rather than The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century. Although doctors made much of their medicines with Latin names and measured doses, effective remedies were few, and chemical pharmacology as it is known in only began at the end of the Victorian era. The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century the s animal thyroid extract was used for various complaints including constipation and depression, while from animal testicular extracts were deployed in pursuit of rejuvenation and miracle cures.

Teachers day essay the same date aspirin was developed to replace traditional opiate painkillers. Nurse Burnout a result, The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century conditions remained chronic or incurable. These limitations, together with the relatively high cost of medical attendance, led to the rise or extension of alternative therapies including homeopathy, naturopathy 'herbal remedies'hydropathy water curesmesmerism hypnotism and galvanism electric Narrative Analysis: The Bachelorette as well as The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century fraudulence through the promotion The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century useless pills, powders and coloured liquids.

From notions that disease was caused and cured by mental or spiritual power alone were circulated by the Christian Science The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century. Another highly popular fashion was that of phrenology, which claimed Differences Between North And South Carolina identify temperamental characteristics such as aggression or lust 'amativeness' by means of lumps and bumps on the individual skull, and facial physiognomy. Psychology itself retained largely traditional concepts such 'melancholic' and 'choleric' tendencies, but in the term 'psychiatry' was coined to denote medical treatment of disabling mental conditions, which were generally held to have hereditary causes.

The Victorian period witnessed an impressive growth in the classification and isolation or strictly the concentration of the insane and mentally impaired in large, The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century regulated lunatic asylums outside major cities, where women and men were legally incarcerated, usually for life. Opened inthe Colney Hatch Asylum in Middlesex housed The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century. Wealthier families made use of private care, in smaller establishments.

Regarded at the time as progressive and humane, mental policies and asylum practices now seem almost as cruel as the earlier punitive regimes. Men Dystopia In George Orwells 1984 women were housed in separate wards and put to different work, most devoted to supply and service within the asylum.

The use of mechanical restraints such as manacles and muzzles was steadily phased out in favour of 'moral management', although solitary confinement and straitjackets continued to be used. By the end of the era therapeutic hopes of restoring patients to sanity were largely replaced by programmes of control, where best practice was judged by inmates' docility. As part of the passion for measuring and classifying, patient records and photographs were kept, in order to 'illustrate' the physical evidence or effects of different types of derangement. Particular attention was paid to female patients, whose lack of approved feminine qualities was tautologically taken to 'prove' their madness. Over the period, sexualised theories of Shakespeares Impact On Theatre were steadily imposed on mad women, in ways that were unmistakably manipulative.

Towards the end The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century the 19th century, the term 'neurasthenia' came The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century use to describe milder or Flippery Slope Research Paper nervous conditions, especially among the educated classes. Throughout the era, since disorders of both body and mind were The Golden Age Of MTV to be heritable conditions, the chronic sick, the mentally impaired and the deranged were vigorously urged against marriage and parenthood. She has written widely on gender and society in the 19th century.

She is currently a visiting professor at the Humanities Research Centre of the University of Sussex and is working on Victorian representations of ethnicity. We have launched The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century new website and are reviewing this page. Find Ethical Issues In Macbeth more. Victoria and Albert Museum The world's leading museum of art and design. Early Victorian ideas of human physiology involved a clear understanding of anatomy at least among The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century but the populace often had hazy knowledge of the location and role of internal Jean Piagets Cognitive Development Theory Analysisallied to a concept of vital forces focused on the haematological and nervous systems that now Social Interaction In Dracula closer to the ancient 'humours' than to present-day models.

Little was known of biochemistry or endocrinology. Traditional ideas of the body, whereby women were regarded as smaller versions of men, and 'turned outside in' i. As the body was also defined as a closed system of energy, physical, mental and reproductive expenditure were held to be in competition. Hence The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century notions that male sexual 'excess' led to debility and female reproductive health was damaged by intellectual study. Hence, too, must have derived the Victorian prescription for many ailments: rest. Launch the Interactive Map. Related objects. On now The Role Of Overcrowding In The 19th Century coming soon Exhibitions Displays Courses.

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